The invasion of the North American continent and its peoples began with the Spanish in 1565 in St. Augustine, Florida, and then with the British in 1587 when the Plymouth Company established a colony they called Roanoke in present-day Virginia. This first colony mysteriously failed, and in 1606 the London Company established a presence in what would become Jamestown, Virginia. From there, the French founded Quebec in 1608, then the Dutch founded a colony in what is now New York in 1609. While Native Americans resisted European efforts to amass land and power during this period, they fought for it while fighting new diseases introduced by Europeans and the slave trade. Learn more about the colonization of North America and the plight of Native Americans through these educational resources. Another important clause in the treaty allowed ships of both countries to sail in the waters under the jurisdiction of the other country if the intention was to access countries under their own control. In this strict sense, the seas themselves remained free. The treaty therefore prevented both sides from going to war to drag territories into war, at least for the time being. Essentially, Spain had America and Portugal on the west coast of Africa and everything that could be east of the Cape of Good Hope, a part of the globe unknown to Europeans at the time. It was not important to these two royal families that people already lived in these places or that a very prosperous commercial network had been established there for a long time.
Prince Henry the Navigator (aka Infant Dom Henrique, 1394-1460) had organized Portuguese expeditions to explore and develop the Islands of the North Atlantic, but his ambitions in the Canary Islands were thwarted several times. Spanish forces and indigenous Guanches repelled the Portuguese three times, but the issue was not resolved. Spain and Portugal were at war between 1474 and 1479, and during this period there was a brief occupation of Santiago in the Cape Verde group by Spanish forces. The war ended with the Peace Treaty of Alcáçovas-Toledo (1479-80), an agreement that also saw the first attempts to determine which geographical areas should belong to the Spaniards and which to the Portuguese. Spain`s claim to the Canary Islands was recognized, as was the Portuguese claim to Madeira, the Azores, Cape Verde and all trade in West Africa. Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen. Spain gained land, including most of America. The easternmost part of present-day Brazil, when it was discovered by Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500, has been attributed to Portugal. The line was not strictly enforced – the Spaniards did not oppose the Portuguese expansion of Brazil via the meridian. The treaty became meaningless between 1580 and 1640, when the King of Spain was also King of Portugal.
It was replaced by the Treaty of Madrid of 1750, which gave Portugal control of the countries it occupied in South America. However, this treaty was immediately rejected by Spain. It was obvious that little research had been done at the time of the signing of the treaty, as Spain had been granted a much larger part of the country. Portugal was only given in possession of Brazil. Portugal urged in the following centuries to move Brazil`s border westward. The line was not very well defined, so the Spaniards did not oppose this Portuguese expansion. Although the island of Santo Thome was not identified by the treaty, its “Islas de las Velas” (Islands of Sails) appear in a Spanish history of China from 1585, on Petrus Plancius` world map of 1594, on an anonymous map of the Moluccas in the London edition of Linschoten of 1598 and on Petro Kærio`s world map of 1607. identified as a north-south chain of islands in the Pacific Northwest, which at that time were also called “Islas de los Ladrones” (Thieves` Islands).
   Its name was changed from Spain in 1667 to “Islas de las Marianas” (Mariana Islands), which also includes Guam at its southern end. Guam`s longitude of 144°45′E is east of the Moluccan longitude of 127°24′E to 17°21′, which is remarkably close to the 17° east of the Treaty by 16th century standards. This longitude crosses the eastern end of the main island of Hokkaidō, in northern Japan, and the eastern end of New Guinea, where Frédéric Durand placed the demarcation line.  Moriarty and Keistman set the demarcation line at 147°E by measuring 16.4° east of the western tip of New Guinea (or 17° east of 130°E).  Despite the treaty`s clear statement that the demarcation line extends 17° east of the Moluccas, some sources place the line east of the Moluccas.    The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed by Chile in the 20th century. In the nineteenth century, it was invoked to defend the principle of an Antarctic sector extending along a meridian to the South Pole, as well as the claim that the treaty made the Spaniards (or Portuguese) all unknown lands south of the pole.  The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed on June 7, 1494. Essentially, the decision of the bull was retained by Pope Alexander, but the demarcation line was moved a little to the west. To be precise, the line moved 370 miles west of Cape Verde, about 46 degrees 30` west. This meant that the line ran in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, roughly equidistant between the Cape Verde Islands and the West Indies, but it was an approximate and completely imaginary line, since cartographers of the time had no way of measuring longitude. This meant that when the sailors were actually at sea, in practice, they could not say for sure whether they had crossed the line.
Another complication was that the contract did not explicitly specify where the line ended. Did he travel around the world to the soon-to-be-discovered Pacific Ocean? The line also did not take into account practical geographical issues such as coasts, lakes or mountains, and certainly the local population and their own tribal or political boundaries were not taken into account at all. Portugal took control of all the countries and seas west of the Zaragoza Line, including all of Asia and its “discovered neighboring islands,” leaving Spain with most of the Pacific Ocean behind. Although the Philippines was not mentioned in the treaty, Spain implicitly renounced any claim to them because they were far west of the line. Nevertheless, King Charles V decided to take the plunge. In 1542, to colonize the Philippines, and decided that Portugal would not protest because the archipelago had no spices. Although a number of expeditions sent from New Spain arrived in the Philippines, they were unable to establish a colony as the return route through the Pacific was unknown. King Philip II succeeded in sending Miguel López de Legazpi and Andrés de Urdaneta in 1565 to establish the first Spanish trading post in Cebu and later founded Manila in 1571. Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen by Europeans, as it was divided only by the treaty. Castile gained land, including most of the Americas, which in 1494 had little proven wealth. The easternmost part of present-day Brazil was attributed to Portugal when Pedro Álvares Cabral landed there in 1500 on his way to India. Some historians claim that even before this time, the Portuguese knew about the South American bulge that makes up most of Brazil, so its landing in Brazil was not a coincidence.
 One researcher points out that Cabral landed on the Brazilian coast 12 degrees further south than the expected Cape São Roque, so “the probability that such a landing as a result of a weather cape or navigational errors was low; and it is very likely that Cabral was commissioned to study a coast whose existence was not only suspected, but already known. In 1521, Hernán Cortés led a force of conquerors who attacked the Aztec Empire in Mexico and claimed it for Spain. In 1533, Francisco Pizarro led a force that attacked the Inca Empire in South America and eventually caused its collapse. Suddenly, the Spaniards controlled two vast empires and all their wealth. Meanwhile, in 1532, the Portuguese began to colonize Brazil, which fortunately for them went beyond the mainland to cross the line set in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Meanwhile, the Treaty of Zaragoça (Zaragoça) of 1529 extended the demarcation line from Tordesillas to the other side of the world and confirmed Portugal`s claim to the Spice Islands, while Spain received the Philippines (even though they were in portugal`s sphere). The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas [tɾɐˈtaðu ðɨ tuɾðeˈziʎɐʃ];[ Note 1] Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo ðe toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed in Tordesillas, Spain on 7 September. June 1494 and certified at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire (Crown of Castile), along a meridian 370 miles [Note 2] west of the Cape Verde Islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the islands of Cape Verde (already Portuguese) and the islands that Christopher Columbus had entered on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), called in the Treaty Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola). The bull did not mention Portugal or its country, so Portugal could not claim a newly discovered land, even if it was east of the line. Another bull, Dudum siquidem, entitled Extension of the Apostolic Concession and Donation of the Indies, dated the 25th. September 1493, gave Spain all the continents and islands that belonged to India at that time, even if they were east of the line.